Simplified J2EE view
Entity objects = business domain objects: data + validations - we would traditionally implement these using entity EJB's, hibernate objects etc.View Objects = Not exactly J2EE TO's - I find this an abstraction unique to ADF encapsulating the POJO and a query.
Application Module = the API interface / 'business service'. You write your logic and expose it using any convenient interface - java client, SOAP client, EJB interface etc.
MVC (DataBindings - ADFm, the model; Pages - jsff or jspx, the view ; TaskFlows ADFc*, the controller) then resides on top of these in your ADF UI project and consumes these business services (or ones from a non ADFbc source).
*These names are reflected in the packaging structure of Oracle's java libraries that implement these.
Anyway, that's my brief take on things, originally posted as a response here.
Here's the official patterns catalog page.
(I need to follow up on one of their definitions if purely for pedantic reasons)